Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear

Feature Summary

The ACL is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure running from femur to tibia. It prevents the anterior translation of the lower leg and provides the rotational stability of the knee. ACL injury is the most common type of knee injury during sports exercise. It often leads to the feeling of instability of knee.



When ACL tears, it does not heal by itself. The effect of direct repair is still unsatisfactory. The current treatment of ACL tear is reconstruction, which means replacing the ligament with a graft.



The ACL reconstruction was done to regain the stability of knee.



ACL reconstruction is performed arthroscopically with minimal incisions. After the debridement of the torn ligament, tunnels are drilled on the femur and tibia to accept the new graft. The hamstring tendon is harvested as the graft to replace the torn ACL. The graft is then prepared and passed through the drilled tunnels of the bone. The new ligament is then fixed to the bone with absorbable screw or other devices. The other structures inside the knee can be also checked. Any other cartilage or meniscal lesions can be treated. A drain would be placed to prevent joint swelling. The drain would be removed 2 days after surgery. There are only several stitches need to be removed after the surgery.

After the ACL reconstruction, knee protection with a knee brace is required. The doctor will arrange the rehabilitation protocol in the following months.



Complications are not common but can occur.

  • Graft failure
  • Joint stiffness
  • Infection
  • Allergic reactions to medications
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Excessive swelling & Bruising
  • Damage to nerves or vessels
  • Donor site pain


Estimated Cost

The procedure cost is about 176,000 NTD, prices are subject to change without prior notice, need to pay in accordance with the actual medical expenses.

A knee that was viewed arthroscopically. The ACL is invisible due to tear. ACL reconstruction with graft. Fixing the graft with screw.
The surgery is performed arthroscopically. The wound of ACL reconstruction.